Publications

2018
Tuvia Gefen, Maxim Khodas, Liam P. McGuinness, Fedor Jelezko, and Alex Retzker. 7/27/2018. “Quantum spectroscopy of single spins assisted by a classical clock.” Physical Review a, 98, 1. Publisher's Version Abstract
Quantum spectroscopy with single two-level systems has considerably improved our ability to detect weak signals. Recently it was realized that for classical signals, precision and resolution of quantum spectroscopy is limited mainly by coherence of the signal and the stability of the clock used to measure time. The coherence time of the quantum probe, which can be significantly shorter, is not a major limiting factor in resolution measurements. Here, we address a similar question for spectroscopy of quantum signals, for example, a quantum sensor is used to detect a single nuclear spin. We present and analyze a novel correlation spectroscopy technique with performance that is limited by the coherence time of the target spins and the stability of the clock.
P Fernandez-Acebal, O Rosolio, J Scheuer, C Muller, S Muller, S Schmitt, LP McGuinness, I Schwarz, Q Chen, A Retzker, B Naydenov, F Jelezko, and MB Plenio. 2/22/2018. “Toward Hyperpolarization of Oil Molecules via Single Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond.” Nano Letters, 18, 3, Pp. 1882-1887. Publisher's Version Abstract
Efficient polarization of organic molecules is of extraordinary relevance when performing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and imaging. Commercially available routes to dynamical nuclear polarization (DNP) work at extremely low temperatures, relying on the solidification of organic samples and thus bringing the molecules out of their ambient thermal conditions. In this work, we investigate polarization transfer from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond to external molecules at room temperature. This polarization transfer is described by both an extensive analytical analysis and numerical simulations based on spin bath bosonization and is supported by experimental data in excellent agreement. These results set the route to hyperpolarization of diffusive molecules in different scenarios and consequently, due to an increased signal, to high-resolution NMR.
2017
T Manovitz, A Rotem, R Shaniv, I Cohen, Y Shapira, N Akerman, A Retzker, and R Ozeri. 11/29/2017. “Fast Dynamical Decoupling of the Molmer-Sorensen Entangling Gate.” Physical Review Letters, 119, 22. Publisher's Version Abstract
Engineering entanglement between quantum systems often involves coupling through a bosonic mediator, which should be disentangled from the systems at the operation’s end. The quality of such an operation is generally limited by environmental and control noise. One of the prime techniques for suppressing noise is by dynamical decoupling, where one actively applies pulses at a rate that is faster than the typical time scale of the noise. However, for boson-mediated gates, current dynamical decoupling schemes require executing the pulses only when the boson and the quantum systems are disentangled. This restriction implies an increase of the gate time by a factor of √N, with N being the number of pulses applied. Here we propose and realize a method that enables dynamical decoupling in a boson-mediated system where the pulses can be applied while spin-boson entanglement persists, resulting in an increase in time that is at most a factor of π/2, independently of the number of pulses applied. We experimentally demonstrate the robustness of our entangling gate with fast dynamical decoupling to σz noise using ions in a Paul trap.
T Gefen, F Jelezko, and A Retzker. 9/8/2017. “Control methods for improved Fisher information with quantum sensing.” Physical Review a, 96, 3. Publisher's Version Abstract
Recently new approaches for sensing the frequency of time dependent Hamiltonians have been presented, and it was shown that the optimal Fisher information scales as T4. We present here our interpretation of this new scaling, where the relative phase is accumulated quadratically with time, and show that this can be produced by a variety of simple pulse sequences. Interestingly, this scaling has a limited duration, and we show that certain pulse sequences prolong the effect. The performance of these schemes is analyzed and we examine their relevance to state-of-the-art experiments. We analyze the T3 scaling of the Fisher information which appears when multiple synchronized measurements are performed, and is the optimal scaling in the case of a finite coherence time.
D Farfurnik, N Aharon, I Cohen, Y Hovav, A Retzker, and N Bar-Gill. 7/25/2017. “Experimental realization of time-dependent phase-modulated continuous dynamical decoupling.” Physical Review a, 96, 1. Publisher's Version Abstract
The coherence times achieved with continuous dynamical decoupling techniques are often limited by fluctuations in the driving amplitude. In this work, we use time-dependent phase-modulated continuous driving to increase the robustness against such fluctuations in a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Considering realistic experimental errors in the system, we identify the optimal modulation strength and demonstrate an improvement of an order of magnitude in the spin preservation of arbitrary states over conventional single continuous driving. The phase-modulated driving exhibits results comparable to those found with previously examined amplitude-modulated techniques and is expected to outperform them in experimental systems having higher phase accuracy. The proposed technique could open new avenues for quantum information processing and many-body physics in systems dominated by high-frequency spin-bath noise, for which pulsed dynamical decoupling is less effective.
N Aharon, M Drewsen, and A Retzker. 7/7/2017. “Enhanced quantum sensing with multi-level structures of trapped ions.” Quantum Science and Technology, 2, 3. Publisher's Version Abstract
We present a method of enhanced sensing of AC magnetic fields. The method is based on the construction of a robust qubit by the application of continuous driving fields. Specifically, magnetic noise and power fluctuations of the driving fields do not operate within the robust qubit subspace, hence robustness to both external and controller noise is achieved. The scheme is applicable to either a single ion or an ensemble of ions. We consider trapped-ion based implementation via the dipole transitions, which is relevant for several types of ions, such as the ${}^{40}{\mathrm{Ca}}^{+}$${}^{88}{\mathrm{Sr}}^{+}$ and the ${}^{138}{\mathrm{Ba}}^{+}$ ions. Taking experimental errors into account, we conclude that the coherence time of the robust qubit can be improved by up to ~4 orders of magnitude compared to the coherence time of the bare states. We show how the robust qubit can be utilised for the task of sensing AC magnetic fields in the range $\sim 0.1\,-\,100\,\mathrm{MHz}$ with an improvement of ~2 orders of magnitude of the sensitivity. In addition, we present a microwave-based sensing scheme that is suitable for ions with a hyperfine structure, such as the ${}^{9}{\mathrm{Be}}^{+}$,${}^{25}{\mathrm{Mg}}^{+}$,${}^{43}{\mathrm{Ca}}^{+}$,${}^{87}{\mathrm{Sr}}^{+}$,${}^{137}{\mathrm{Ba}}^{+}$,${}^{111}{\mathrm{Cd}}^{+}$,${}^{171}{\mathrm{Yb}}^{+}$ and the ${}^{199}{\mathrm{Hg}}^{+}$ ions. This scheme enables the enhanced sensing of high-frequency fields at the GHz level.
N Bar-Gill and A Retzker. 7/7/2017. “Observing chemical shifts from nanosamples.” Science, 357, 6346, Pp. 38-38. Publisher's Version Abstract
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a highly versatile spectroscopy method widely used in diverse disciplines, but its sensitivity and spatial resolution are limited by the inductive measurement of magnetic nuclei. Nano-NMR methods are emerging that aim to measure a single nuclear spin—an improvement in sensitivity of 13 orders of magnitude. The main workhorse of these methods has been atomic defects in diamond, which have distinctive optical and magnetic properties. On page 67 of this issue, Aslam et al. (1) demonstrate a modified sensing scheme based on diamond defects that achieves spectral resolutions sufficient for measuring chemical shifts.
I Baumgart, JM Cai, SS Ivanov, C Piltz, MB Plenio, A Retzker, T Sriarunothai, S Wolk, and C Wunderlich. 4/5/2017. “Coherent Quantum Fourier Transform Using 3-Qubit Conditional Gates and Ultrasensitive Magnetometry with RF-Driven Trapped Ions.” 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cleo). Publisher's Version Abstract
Using long-range magnetic gradient induced coupling between three effective spins, a coherent QFT is efficiently realized with trapped Yb+ ions. With a single Yb+ ion, RF magnetic fields are measured close to the quantum limit.
JP Chou, A Retzker, and A Gali. 3/24/2017. “Nitrogen-Terminated Diamond (111) Surface for Room-Temperature Quantum Sensing and Simulation.” Nano Letters, 17, 4, Pp. 2294-2298. Publisher's Version Abstract
The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has shown great promise of nanoscale sensing applications, however, near-surface NV suffer from relatively short spin coherence time that limits its sensitivity. This is presumably caused by improper surface termination. Using first-principles calculations, we propose that nitrogen-terminated (111) diamond provides electrical inactivity and surface spin noise free properties. We anticipate that the nitrogen-terminated (111) surface can be fabricated by nitrogen plasma treatment. Our findings pave the way toward an improved NV-based quantum sensing and quantum simulation operating at room temperature.
T Gefen, D Cohen, I Cohen, and A Retzker. 3/9/2017. “Enhancing the fidelity of two-qubit gates by measurements.” Physical Review a, 95, 3. Publisher's Version Abstract
Dynamical decoupling techniques are the method of choice for increasing gate fidelities. While these methods have produced very impressive results in terms of decreasing local noise and increasing the fidelities of single-qubit operations, dealing with the noise of two-qubit gates has proven more challenging. The main obstacle is that the noise time scale is shorter than the two-qubit gate itself, so that refocusing methods do not work. We present a measurement- and feedback-based method to suppress two-qubit-gate noise, which cannot be suppressed by conventional methods. We analyze in detail this method for an error model, which is relevant for trapped-ion quantum information.
Alexander Stark, Nati Aharon, Thomas Unden, Daniel Louzon, Alexander Huck, Alex Retzker, Ulrik L. Andersen, and Fedor Jelezko. 2017. “Narrow-bandwidth sensing of high-frequency fields with continuous dynamical decoupling.” Nature Communications, 8. Publisher's Version Abstract
State-of-the-art methods for sensing weak AC fields are only efficient in the low frequency domain (<10 MHz). The inefficiency of sensing high-frequency signals is due to the lack of ability to use dynamical decoupling. In this paper we show that dynamical decoupling can be incorporated into high-frequency sensing schemes and by this we demonstrate that the high sensitivity achieved for low frequency can be extended to the whole spectrum. While our scheme is general and suitable to a variety of atomic and solid-state systems, we experimentally demonstrate it with the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. For a diamond with natural abundance of 13C, we achieve coherence times up to 1.43 ms resulting in a smallest detectable magnetic field strength of 4 nT at 1.6 GHz. Attributed to the inherent nature of our scheme, we observe an additional increase in coherence time due to the signal itself.
Y Pilnyak, N Aharon, D Istrati, E Megidish, A Retzker, and HS Eisenberg. 2017. “Simple source for large linear cluster photonic states.” Physical Review a, 95, 2. Publisher's Version Abstract
The experimental realization of many-body entangled states is one of the main goals of quantum technology as these states are a key resource for quantum computation and quantum sensing. However, increasing the number of photons in an entangled state has been proved to be a painstakingly hard task. This is a result of the nondeterministic emission of current photon sources and the distinguishability between photons from different sources. Moreover, the generation rate and the complexity of the optical setups hinder scalability. Here we present a scheme that is compact, requires a very modest number of components, and avoids the distinguishability issues by using only one single-photon source. States of any number of photons are generated with the same configuration, with no need for increasing the optical setup. The basic operation of this scheme is experimentally demonstrated, and its sensitivity to imperfections is considered.
Simon Schmitt, Tuvia Gefen, Felix M. Stürner, Thomas Unden, Gerhard Wolff, Christoph Müller, Jochen Scheuer, Boris Naydenov, Matthew Markham, Sebastien Pezzagna, Jan Meijer, Ilai Schwarz, Martin Plenio, Alex Retzker, Liam P. McGuinness, and Fedor Jelezko. 2017. “Submillihertz magnetic spectroscopy performed with a nanoscale quantum sensor.” Science, 356, 6340, Pp. 832-836. Publisher's Version Abstract
Precise timekeeping is critical to metrology, forming the basis by which standards of time, length, and fundamental constants are determined. Stable clocks are particularly valuable in spectroscopy because they define the ultimate frequency precision that can be reached. In quantum metrology, the qubit coherence time defines the clock stability, from which the spectral linewidth and frequency precision are determined. We demonstrate a quantum sensing protocol in which the spectral precision goes beyond the sensor coherence time and is limited by the stability of a classical clock. Using this technique, we observed a precision in frequency estimation scaling in time T as T–3/2 for classical oscillating fields. The narrow linewidth magnetometer based on single spins in diamond is used to sense nanoscale magnetic fields with an intrinsic frequency resolution of 607 microhertz, which is eight orders of magnitude narrower than the qubit coherence time.
2016
N Aharon, I Cohen, F Jelezko, and A Retzker. 12/12/2016. “Fully robust qubit in atomic and molecular three-level systems.” New Journal of Physics, 18. Publisher's Version Abstract
We present a new method of constructing a fully robust qubit in a three-level system. By the application of continuous driving fields, robustness to both external and controller noise is achieved. Specifically, magnetic noise and power fluctuations do not operate within the robust qubit subspace. Whereas all the continuous driving based constructions of such a fully robust qubit considered so far have required at least four levels, we show that in fact only three levels are necessary. This paves the way for simple constructions of a fully robust qubit in many atomic and solid state systems that are controlled by either microwave or optical fields. We focus on the NV-center in diamond and analyze the implementation of the scheme, by utilizing the electronic spin sub-levels of its ground state. In current state-of-the-art experimental setups the scheme leads to improvement of more than two orders of magnitude in coherence time, pushing it towards the lifetime limit. We show how the fully robust qubit can be used to implement quantum sensing, and in particular, the sensing of high frequency signals.
S Weidt, J Randall, SC Webster, K Lake, AE Webb, I Cohen, T Navickas, B Lekitsch, A Retzker, and WK Hensinger. 11/23/2016. “Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields.” Physical Review Letters, 117, 22. Publisher's Version Abstract
Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.
I Cohen, N Aharon, and A Retzker. 11/15/2016. “Continuous dynamical decoupling utilizing time-dependent detuning.” Fortschritte Der Physik-Progress of Physics, 65, 6-8. Publisher's Version Abstract
Resilience to noise and to decoherence processes is an important ingredient for the implementation of quantum information processing, and quantum technologies. To this end, techniques such as pulsed and continuous dynamical decoupling have been proposed to reduce noise effects. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to implementing continuous dynamical decoupling techniques, that uses an extra control parameter; namely, the ability to shape the time dependence of the detuning. This approach reduces the complexity of the experimental setup, such that we are only left with noise originating from the frequency of the driving field, which is much more robust than the amplitude (Rabi frequency) noise. As an example, we show that our technique can be utilized for improved sensing.
L Cohen, Y Pilnyak, D Istrati, A Retzker, and HS Eisenberg. 7/15/2016. “Demonstration of a quantum error correction for enhanced sensitivity of photonic measurements.” Physical Review a, 94, 1. Publisher's Version Abstract
The sensitivity of classical and quantum sensing is impaired in a noisy environment. Thus, one of the main challenges facing sensing protocols is to reduce the noise while preserving the signal. State-of-the-art quantum sensing protocols that rely on dynamical decoupling achieve this goal under the restriction of long noise correlation times. We implement a proof-of-principle experiment of a protocol to recover sensitivity by using an error correction for photonic systems that does not have this restriction. The protocol uses a protected entangled qubit to correct a single error. Our results show a recovery of about 87% of the sensitivity, independent of the noise probability.
T Unden, P Balasubramanian, D Louzon, Y Vinkler, MB Plenio, M Markham, D Twitchen, A Stacey, I Lovchinsky, AO Sushkov, MD Lukin, A Retzker, B Naydenov, LP McGuinness, and F Jelezko. 6/9/2016. “Quantum Metrology Enhanced by Repetitive Quantum Error Correction.” Physical Review Letters, 116, 23. Publisher's Version Abstract
We experimentally demonstrate the protection of a room-temperature hybrid spin register against environmental decoherence by performing repeated quantum error correction whilst maintaining sensitivity to signal fields. We use a long-lived nuclear spin to correct multiple phase errors on a sensitive electron spin in diamond and realize magnetic field sensing beyond the time scales set by natural decoherence. The universal extension of sensing time, robust to noise at any frequency, demonstrates the definitive advantage entangled multiqubit systems provide for quantum sensing and offers an important complement to quantum control techniques.
S Weidt, J Randall, SC Webster, K Lake, AE Webb, I Cohen, T Navickas, B Lekitsch, A Retzker, and WK Hensinger. 6/5/2016. “Entangling gate with trapped ions using long.” 2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cleo). Publisher's Version Abstract
The use of long-wavelength radiation for gate operations is a promising approach for trapped-ion quantum computation. We demonstrate the key principle of this approach by generating a maximally entangled two-qubit Bell-state with fidelity of 0.985.
T Gefen, DA Herrera-Marti, and A Retzker. 3/28/2016. “Parameter estimation with efficient photodetectors.” Physical Review a, 93, 3. Publisher's Version Abstract
Current parameter estimation techniques rely on photodetectors which have a low efficiency and thus are based on gathering averaged statistics. Recently it was claimed that perfect photodetction will change the nature of sensing algorithms and will increase the sensing efficiency beyond the immediate effect of a higher collection efficiency. In this paper we bring up the observation that perfect photodetection implies Heisenberg scaling (1T) for parameter estimations. We analyze a specific example in detail.