2015

C Senko, P Richerme, J Smith, A Lee, I Cohen, A Retzker, and C Monroe. 6/17/2015. “Realization of a Quantum Integer-Spin Chain with Controllable Interactions.” Physical Review X, 5, 2. Publisher's Version Abstract
The physics of interacting integer-spin chains has been a topic of intense theoretical interest, particularly in the context of symmetry-protected topological phases. However, there has not been a controllable model system to study this physics experimentally. We demonstrate how spin-dependent forces on trapped ions can be used to engineer an effective system of interacting spin-1 particles. Our system evolves coherently under an applied spin-1 XY Hamiltonian with tunable, long-range couplings, and all three quantum levels at each site participate in the dynamics. We observe the time evolution of the system and verify its coherence by entangling a pair of effective three-level particles (“qutrits”) with 86% fidelity. By adiabatically ramping a global field, we produce ground states of the XY model, and we demonstrate an instance where the ground state cannot be created without breaking the same symmetries that protect the topological Haldane phase. This experimental platform enables future studies of symmetry-protected order in spin-1 systems and their use in quantum applications.
HL Partner, R Nigmatullin, T Burgermeister, J Keller, K Pyka, MB Plenio, A Retzker, WH Zurek, A del Campog, and TE Mehlstaubler. 3/1/2015. “Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals.” Physica B-Condensed Matter, 460, Pp. 114-118. Publisher's Version Abstract
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
G Mikelsons, I Cohen, A Retzker, and MB Plenio. 5/22/2015. “Universal set of gates for microwave dressed-state quantum computing.” New Journal of Physics, 17. Publisher's Version Abstract
We propose a set of techniques that enable universal quantum computing to be carried out using dressed states. This applies in particular to the effort of realizing quantum computation in trapped ions using long-wavelength radiation, where coupling enhancement is achieved by means of static magnetic-field gradient. We show how the presence of dressing fields enables the construction of robust single and multi-qubit gates despite the unavoidable presence of magnetic noise, an approach that can be generalized to provide shielding in any analogous quantum system that relies on the coupling of electronic degrees of freedom via bosonic modes.
I Cohen, P Richerme, ZX Gong, C Monroe, and A Retzker. 7/30/2015. “Simulating the Haldane phase in trapped-ion spins using optical fields.” Physical Review a, 92, 1. Publisher's Version Abstract
We propose to experimentally explore the Haldane phase in spin-one XXZ antiferromagnetic chains using trapped ions. We show how to adiabatically prepare the ground states of the Haldane phase, demonstrate their robustness against sources of experimental noise, and propose ways to detect the Haldane ground states based on their excitation gap and exponentially decaying correlations, nonvanishing nonlocal string order, and doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum.
DA Herrera-Marti, T Gefen, D Aharonov, N Katz, and A Retzker. 11/9/2015. “Quantum Error-Correction-Enhanced Magnetometer Overcoming the Limit Imposed by Relaxation.” Physical Review Letters, 115, 20. Publisher's Version Abstract
When incorporated in quantum sensing protocols, quantum error correction can be used to correct for high frequency noise, as the correction procedure does not depend on the actual shape of the noise spectrum. As such, it provides a powerful way to complement usual refocusing techniques. Relaxation imposes a fundamental limit on the sensitivity of state of the art quantum sensors which cannot be overcome by dynamical decoupling. The only way to overcome this is to utilize quantum error correcting codes. We present a superconducting magnetometry design that incorporates approximate quantum error correction, in which the signal is generated by a two qubit Hamiltonian term. This two-qubit term is provided by the dynamics of a tunable coupler between two transmon qubits. For fast enough correction, it is possible to lengthen the coherence time of the device beyond the relaxation limit.
I Cohen, S Weidt, WK Hensinger, and A Retzker. 4/8/2015. “Multi-qubit gate with trapped ions for microwave and laser-based implementation.” New Journal of Physics, 17. Publisher's Version Abstract
A proposal for a phase gate and a Mølmer–Sørensen gate in the dressed state basis is presented. In order to perform the multi-qubit interaction, a strong magnetic field gradient is required to couple the phonon-bus to the qubit states. The gate is performed using resonant microwave driving fields together with either a radio-frequency (RF) driving field, or additional detuned microwave driving fields. The gate is robust to ambient magnetic field fluctuations due to an applied resonant microwave driving field. Furthermore, the gate is robust to fluctuations in the microwave Rabi frequency and is decoupled from phonon dephasing due to a resonant RF or a detuned microwave driving field. This makes this new gate an attractive candidate for the implementation of high-fidelity microwave based multi-qubit gates. The proposal can also be realized in laser-based set-ups.
JE Avron, O Kenneth, A Retzker, and M Shalyt. 4/8/2015. “Lindbladians for controlled stochastic Hamiltonians.” New Journal of Physics, 17. Publisher's Version Abstract
We construct Lindbladians associated with controlled stochastic Hamiltonians in the weak coupling regime. This construction allows us to determine the power spectrum of the noise from measurements of dephasing rates. Moreover, by studying the derived equation it is possible to optimize the control as well as to test numerical algorithms that solve controlled stochastic Schrödinger equations. A few examples are worked out in detail.
Q Chen, I Schwarz, F Jelezko, A Retzker, and MB Plenio. 11/18/2015. “Optical hyperpolarization of C-13 nuclear spins in nanodiamond ensembles.” Physical Review B, 92, 18. Publisher's Version Abstract
Dynamical nuclear polarization holds the key for orders of magnitude enhancements of nuclear magnetic resonance signals which, in turn, would enable a wide range of novel applications in biomedical sciences. However, current implementations of DNP require cryogenic temperatures and long times for achieving high polarization. Here we propose and analyze in detail protocols that can achieve rapid hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in randomly oriented ensembles of nanodiamonds at room temperature. Our protocols exploit a combination of optical polarization of electron spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers and the transfer of this polarization to 13C nuclei by means of microwave control to overcome the severe challenges that are posed by the random orientation of the nanodiamonds and their nitrogen-vacancy centers. Specifically, these random orientations result in exceedingly large energy variations of the electron spin levels that render the polarization and coherent control of the nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins as well as the control of their coherent interaction with the surrounding 13C nuclear spins highly inefficient. We address these challenges by a combination of an off-resonant microwave double resonance scheme in conjunction with a realization of the integrated solid effect which, together with adiabatic rotations of external magnetic fields or rotations of nanodiamonds, leads to a protocol that achieves high levels of hyperpolarization of the entire nuclear-spin bath in a randomly oriented ensemble of nanodiamonds even at room temperature. This hyperpolarization together with the long nuclear-spin polarization lifetimes in nanodiamonds and the relatively high density of 13C nuclei has the potential to result in a major signal enhancement in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and suggests functionalized and hyperpolarized nanodiamonds as a unique probe for molecular imaging both in vitro and in vivo.
JM Cai, I Cohen, A Retzker, and MB Plenio. 10/16/2015. “Proposal for High-Fidelity Quantum Simulation Using a Hybrid Dressed State.” Physical Review Letters, 115, 16. Publisher's Version Abstract
A fundamental goal of quantum technologies concerns the exploitation of quantum coherent dynamics for the realization of novel quantum applications such as quantum computing, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. A key challenge on the way towards these goals remains the protection of quantum coherent dynamics from environmental noise. Here, we propose a concept of a hybrid dressed state from a pair of continuously driven systems. It allows sufficiently strong driving fields to suppress the effect of environmental noise while at the same time being insusceptible to both the amplitude and phase noise in the continuous driving fields. This combination of robust features significantly enhances coherence times under realistic conditions and at the same time provides new flexibility in Hamiltonian engineering that otherwise is not achievable. We demonstrate theoretically applications of our scheme for a noise-resistant analog quantum simulation in the well-studied physical systems of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and of trapped ions. The scheme may also be exploited for quantum computation and quantum metrology.